Figure 1: Modular structure of the meteoblue city climate monitoring system.
, are and also on the available transmission network (GSM, LoRa, NB-IoT, SigFox). and ensures the best coverage at the minimum possible cost In our experience, after optimization of the placement, more than 95% of the sensors provided continuous reporting. During our measurement campaign, we lost only 2% of the sensors over the course of one year, and less than 1% of the sensors were destroyed, indicating that the threat of vandalism is overestimated.
300 temperature and precipitation in 2019 and 2020 They showed differences of up to 8°C within the cities and up to 80 mm/day of precipitation within a few kilometres.
Figure 2: Measurement device at Basel railway station (left). Measurement network for Basel (middle) and Zurich (right).
Figure 3: Air temperature accuracy (Mean Absolute Error) for ten different cities as a function of the city area.
based on anticipated greenhouse gas emissions and other factors, such as future population level, economic activity, etc. spanning a wide range of future developments. Figure 5 describes the probability of heat days (maximum daily air temperature above 30 degrees Celsius) during the summer months of June, July and August by using the most pessimistic RCP8.5 emission scenario. The probability of heat days increases on average from 5 % (today) to 10 % (2035), 20 % (2060) and 30 % (2085) for the city Zurich.
Based on this scenario, the city climate model can calculate location-specific changes of the heat day probability in Zurich and the surrounding areas for every 100 m². This location-specific analysis allows for comparing two (or more) different points within the city. For example, the probability of heat days in 2085 at the Uetliberg (869 m asl.) is as high as the probability of heat days in the city center (408 m asl.) today, indicating an equivalent of elevation shift of around 400 m towards the end of the century.
In summary, air temperatures and heatwave duration will further increase. Since the natural climate variability will still alternate between hotter and cooler summers, probabilities of heat days are calculated instead of absolute values.
It’s time to act now
Decision-makers of city councils have little influence on the ongoing trend of increasing mean global air temperatures. The decision whether mean global air temperatures will rise by 2 or 5°C at the end of the 21st century in comparison with the pre-industrial era is not taken by city councils, but rather by countries and societies at large, and their overall rate of CO2 emission reduction.
However, local government bodies can contribute to a better local city climate. Cities can lower the urban heat island effect through suitable climate change mitigation strategies (rooftop-greening, irrigation, pavement-whitening) based on a realistic assessment. The baseline can be established with the city climate monitoring system, and mitigation strategies can be assessed in the second phase and their effectiveness validated in the third phase.
The knowledge of suitable climate change mitigation strategies and their validation with the meteoblue city climate monitoring system will help smart cities to keep their status of attractive places to live in the future, as opposed to cities with no effective adaptation strategies.
A smart climate monitoring system will assist in achieving these goals in the most targeted, rapid, and cost-effective way. Now it is the best possible time to take action and become a smart and climate-friendly city – via a small investment with a high pay-off in the future.
Note: This article is a sponsored guest content by meteoblue AG. // Images: meteoblue AG
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